- Racial, religious or class persecution
- Military, administrative or diplomatic service that became a permanent expatriation
- Banishment and exile of criminals
- Political opposition
His section entitled "Originaires de Toute la France" discusses where many of the migrants called home. He relates that, from 1650 to 1730, some 200,000 French Huguenots left the country. One third were from Normandy and the Ile-de-France; this group went primarily to what is now The Netherlands. Another third were from the regions of Aquitaine and Saintonge; they went primarily to the British Isles and North America. The final third were from the south and southeast of France and went mainly to Switzerland and Germany, with a smattering going all the way to South Africa. A very useful intial guide, that.
We have previously written about French nationality being retained by emigrants and passed on to their children. Monsieur de Morant includes this among his three categories of French in foreign climes:
- The Expatriate lives outside of France for reasons of work and intends to return, thus remaining within the French systems of documentation
- The Permanent Resident lives outside of France and may not intend to return but is registered with the French embassy or consulate and retains French citizenship, and will appear less and less in the documentation, except that which deals specifically with this group
- The Emigrant left France and has no intention of returning or of retaining French nationality. Obviously, this person does not appear much in French documentation after he or she emigrates.
The above is in the first third or so of the book. The rest covers how to trace these emigrants in French documentation, most of which has been described here on our humble blog:
- Civil registrations for those living overseas
- The Diplomatic Archives
- The censuses of overseas French of 1848 and 1872
- Passenger Lists
- The emigrés after the Revolution
The last section of the book covers how to research in the various countries to which these people emigrated, and is rudimentary.
Buy this little book. Sit down with it and with your notes. Comb through both looking for a hint. All you need is one.
©2012 Anne Morddel